Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Papules and wartsare benign lesions of the skin. Their appearance is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

These developments spoil your appearance and destroy your self-confidence. After all, they usually occur in open places: face, neck, chest. In addition, these blisters are damaged by clothing and become infected. But the most annoying is when papillomas and papillomas appear on the genitals. They can not only ruin an intimate life, but also cause the development of a cancerous tumor.

The disease caused by the papilloma virus is called papillomavirus. This disease is common in sexually active people. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have some form of it. 70% of them were sexually transmitted. In men, external signs of the disease are less common - 1% have genital warts, 30-40% have an asymptomatic episode.

There are two periods in a person's life when the risk of infection is particularly high. The first falls at the beginning of a sex life at the age of 17-25, and the second at the peak of a new partnership at the age of 35-40. Due to the peculiarity of the development of immunity, children and adolescents who have been infected by their parents are very susceptible to this virus.

Older and obese people are more susceptible to papillomas. They have these tumors that appear in the skin folds and on the face.

A viral infection does not always lead to the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in skin cells, and if a person's immunity is strong, he or she will successfully cope with this infection. But if the body's defenses decrease, then warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many people are interested in how papillomas and cysts are different. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

What does a wart look like

wartThese are benign tumors caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some scientists believe that condylomas are more likely to degenerate into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital and anal (anus) areas, but can sometimes appear near the mouth. Warts often appear as a rash that is composed of many factors. They have the unpleasant property of merging and reaching large sizes. On the mucous membranes of the genital organs, they develop in the form of a comb of a rooster.

Warts are dirty red or brown, but are lighter on the genitals. To the touch they are softer and softer than papillomas. Structurally, they resemble many villi that grow together at the base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They are of three types: genital, flat, and intraepithelial warts. These formations must be eliminated. At the same time, doctors register all cases of uterine fibroids.

papilloma on human body

Papillomas- These are benign tumors caused by less dangerous types of human papillomavirus, usually types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. The risk of developing a cancerous tumor in this caseThis is low, papillomas are more of a cosmetic defect than a serious problem. They are located on different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, underarms. But they can also be on the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearly, or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, not merging with each other. They rarely exceed 1 cm in height. The appearance of papillomas is also different - these are round, rough shapes on the stems. They look like cauliflower and are firm to the touch.

Papillomas respond better to treatment and may go away on their own over time. This happens in 20% of cases.

So let's sum up. Papillomas are a less dangerous manifestationpapillomavirusPeople. But the wart must be removed. But it is difficult to independently distinguish papillomas from papillomas, since each has its own disease. Therefore, in any case, consult your doctor for advice.

Skin papilloma

Causes of papillomas

human papilloma virus in the body

A papilloma is a round, thin-stemmed, papilla-like benign tumor. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papillomas can be compared to fungi. Although we see them on the surface, the mycelium has already cast its net underground. Such is the case with papillomas, everything is exactly the same.

This infectious disease is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It adheres to the skin and begins to multiply in the superficial layer - the squamous epithelium. The virus, like a mycelium, quietly resides in the thickness of the skin. But when immunity decreases, and a sufficient amount of pathogens accumulate, it changes the nucleus of epithelial cells. And because of this, they begin to give birth to "wrong" offspring. The mutated skin cells caused by the virus actively grow and cause the appearance of papillomas.

Modes of transmission and modes of infection

  1. Through sex.The thin mucous membranes of the genitals are very susceptible to viral infections. If your sex partner has genital papillomas, the chance of infection is almost 100%. Using condoms can reduce the risk of contracting the disease. But if the foci of growth is located in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then infection will occur in this case. It must be remembered that any form of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous for such a partner.
  2. Transmitted from mother to child during childbirth.This happens when the expectant mother has warts on the internal or external genitalia. During childbirth, the child swallows the virus and develops papillomas on the larynx. This form of the disease is very difficult to treat.
  3. Through household items. Especially often infected through towels, face towels, razors, epilators. In this way, children from sick parents will be infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Showers, swimming pools, and locker rooms in gyms can be dangerous. Viruses left by an infected person on wet surfaces will not die. It causes an infection if the infection has entered the injured skin. But the probability of this happening is not great.
  5. Automatic sterilization. This means that one papilloma can cause dozens of other tumors to appear. Self-infection occurs when shaving or plucking hair, when rubbing with clothing.

Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Diagnosis of human papilloma

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common viruses on the planet. The pathogen itself is a double-stranded DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein coat. There are more than 100 types of it. Of these, 40 are pathogenic to humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, sharp, flat papillomas or in the skin and cancer of the genital organs.

After infection, the virus penetrates the nucleus of skin cells and begins to multiply there. This continues for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period: the virus is already in the body, but the external symptoms are still invisible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillomas consisting of several cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, they increase and can grow up to 10 cm. If the immune system is strong, the papilloma may not show any symptoms or go away on its own. This can happen in young people under the age of 25, after childbirth or when the chronic illness has receded.

There are several types of papillomavirus:

  1. The papillomas are not cancerous (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This is a group of viruses that do not cause regeneration in skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4, and 63 commonly cause warts on the fingers and vulva. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, once considered a severe form of the disease. In fact, by doing this, the body will try to limit the spread of the virus. It seems to create a "coffin" around the affected cells.
  2. Carcinogenic papillomas have a low risk of causing cancer (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).These viruses can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of developing such a disease is not high. The squamous epithelial cells of the skin only mutate if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives. Viruses types 6 and 11 commonly cause the growth of papillomas on the larynx and genital warts on the genitals.
  3. High-risk cancerous papillomas (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)Infection with these viruses often leads to cancer, especially tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition characterized by structural changes in uterine cells. The most dangerous of this group is the HPV 16 virus. This virus causes 50% of cancers. Strain 18 is also quite aggressive and often causes swelling of the cervix. Types 31 and 35 cause intestinal papillomas in men and women, and can cause cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered the least cancerous of the bunch, are easier to treat, and can clear themselves out of the body.

Prognosis of disease progression

The most unfavorable prognosis for virus type 18. The disease can turn into cancer in 3-5 years, causing rapid disappearance of metastases in other organs. The tumor is highly active and grows deep into the genitalia. Prognosis of type 16 infection is somewhat better, but the possibility of tumor recurrence after treatment is high.

The prognosis for viruses 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 is unfavorable. After 2-3 years of treatment, the disease manifests again and often becomes malignant. Cancers caused by these viruses have a high mortality rate.

Such adverse prognosis will alert a person if he detects even a small nodule growth on the skin. It is necessary to consult a dermatologist and gynecologist to make an accurate diagnosis.
You can identify the human papillomavirus in laboratories. To do this, take a smear or scrape from the ingrown skin. The viral DNA is then determined in the laboratory. Types of papillomavirus differ in the structure of their DNA sequences. Help to spot the differencepolymerase chain reaction (PCR).

What are the symptoms and what do papillomas look like on the skin?

Papillomas on the face (photo)

papillae in the eye area

These benign bumps usually appear where the skin is thinnest: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. Growths can occur singly or in groups. In appearance, these are rounded growths similar to elongated or cauliflower-shaped papillae. Papillomas on the face are pink or brownish.
First, on the surface of the skin appears a small pimple, similar to a boil. Gradually, it increased in size, growing up and to the sides. Diameter, papillae up to 3 cm long, base narrower, cap rounded and bulbous.

If in women, papillomas on the face mainly cause cosmetic loss, in men, it is more difficult. Ingrown hairs are constantly injured during shaving and this can cause serious inflammation.

A person becomes infected through physical contact with an infected person. This could be hugging, having sex, or, for example, over a shared towel. From infection to the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can take from 3 months to a year. Most often, tumors form on the skin after infection, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity decreases.

Papillomas on the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papilloma on the skin of the neck

Papillomas can appear anywhere on the body. Their location depends on gender, route of infection, and type of HPV. Some viruses cause warts to appear mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most commonly appear under the armpits, on the sides of the body, and on the neck. In women, they occur on the breasts, under the breasts, nipples, and armpits. But growths can also occur on other parts of the body: on the abdomen, back, hips.

Body papillomas occur an average of 3 months after infection. However, the virus can nest in the skin for several years, and only manifests after the body's immune defenses decline.

Small papillomas on the neck and trunk can be mistaken for goosebumps. But gradually it grows and begins to bring many inconveniences: it clings to clothes, becomes inflamed, bleeds. In this case, you cannot postpone the visit to the doctor.

Papillomas on the skin of the hands (photo)

papilloma on hand

Warts or warts that often appear on the skin of the hands are diseases caused by HPV types 3 and 10. The disease is transmitted from patient to healthy and usually grows in places with small skin lesions, especially near the nails. . . From infection to the appearance of warts takes about 2-6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on narrow legs but directly on the skin. These are small round shapes of yellowish color with an uneven horny surface. To the touch they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often merge and can collide with a large surface. They are usually located on the fingers, palms, in children, and on the knees. It's because babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults, because their skin is thinner and more susceptible to viruses.

Papillomas on the skin of the legs (photo)

papillae on foot skin

Benign growths on the soles of the feet are sometimes called papules. They cause pain, burning when walking and can bring a lot of trouble to the patient.

This disease is caused by the human papillomavirus, or rather types 1, 2, and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, a mild, smooth bump appears on the skin. Gradually, it increases in size and turns yellow. Its surface becomes uneven, bumpy or striated. Grows around the convex rim. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the soles of the feet go away on their own. Self-healing mainly occurs in young people with strong immunity.
Sometimes vegetative papillomas are confused with calluses that appear due to prolonged compression of the foot with shoes. But skin tissue remains on the scar tissue, and the surface of the wart consists of distinct rounded sections.

Remove papilloma on the skin

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they are superficially damaged, often injured, inflamed, or tend to degenerate into cancerous tumors. The main treatment for papillomas is to remove them. But in order for warts to never bother you again, you need to undergo a course of treatment:

  • Immunosuppressants to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Antiviral drugs. They do not destroy the pathogen, but only inhibit its growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. These drugs cause the death of the cells that make up papillomas and warts. They are used when the rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These drugs can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective means is mechanical removal. Modern medicine offers several possible ways to do this. Let's take a look at their features.

Surgical removal of the papilloma.

Surgery is performed if the size of the papilloma is larger than 1 cm or if cancer cells are suspected in the process. Often the doctor will remove and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that outgrowths do not reappear. Once removed, a suture is applied. The procedure is done under local anesthesia and takes 10-15 minutes. In this case, the patient feels no pain.

In some cases, when papillomas have thin stalks, surgical scissors must be used. The blood vessel supplying her is then sealed (coagulated) using a blood-clotting agent. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

Disadvantages of the method: removal of a rather large area of skin. It takes a long time to heal, after surgery there may be scars and scars.

Cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen.

cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, i. e. cold destruction. Once the tumor (papilloma) has been examined and analyzed and shows it to be benign and has no altered cells in it, surgery can be performed.

The doctor will touch the papilloma with a cotton swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or a special nozzle. The nitrogen temperature is -196 degrees. Exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of warts depends on the size of the papilloma. When exposed to liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns into ice, and its crystals destroy the papilloma.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin is very sensitive, it will be numbed by injecting novocaine into the painful area. After nitrogen treatment, the skin turns white, and gradually a small bubble filled with transparent or pink liquid forms in this place. The surrounding skin is red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling. But they slowly passed.

After the procedure, the doctor recommends treating the skin with boric alcohol or potassium permanganate solution 2 times a day for a week. Ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of recurrence of papillomas.

The bubble will burst after 3-4 days and turn into a shell that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy, rosy skin remains underneath.

Removal with liquid nitrogen is recommended if the papilloma is located on the eyelids or small joints. Cryodestruction is also used to remove tumors on the genitals.

Disadvantages of the method: if the doctor slightly freezes the affected area, the papilloma can reappear. Excessive freezing damages healthy tissue and causes scarring.

Laser removal of papillomas.

Before removal, an analysis is performed to exclude the presence of cancer cells. The site of the wart or papilloma is numbed with a lidocaine spray. The patient is required to wear safety glasses.

A laser beam is directed at the tumor. One papilloma is affected for no more than one minute. The laser vaporizes the water in the diseased cells, which shrink and turn into a crust. After half an hour, the surrounding skin turns red and swollen, this is a normal reaction that should go away after a few days.

The crust falls off on its own after 5-7 days. Instead, soft pink skin. Gradually, its color fades, and there is no trace of papillomas at the defect site. It will take about 2 weeks for the wound to heal completely. During this period, you need to protect your skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, at the site of the papilloma, a dark brown spot will appear.

Laser papillomaectomy avoids wound infection with microorganisms and seals off blood vessels. Therefore, no bleeding occurred during and after surgery.

Do not wet and steam for 3 days to wet the scab that forms at the site of the papilloma. In addition, until complete healing, you can not apply decorative cosmetics. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat the area with a solution of potassium permanganate or a healing ointment with antibiotics, as recommended by your doctor.
With the help of a laser, papillomas on the hands, feet, face and genitals will be removed.

Disadvantages of the method: when removing large papillomas with a laser, it can leave scars. Destruction of the seminal vesicles can lead to papillomas that will decrease in height, but will grow in width

Coagulation of papillomas.

This is the removal of tumors using an electric current. A special coagulation machine allows you to dry the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. Then the growth part easily separates from the skin. Wound bleeding does not occur because the vessels are sealed with electric current.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time, you should treat the cracks with calendula tincture 2 times a day. This will help avoid infection. After the crust has peeled off, underneath it is a thin layer of pink skin that must be protected from injury and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this approach is that papillomas can be sent to an oncologist for examination.
Disadvantages of the method. If treatment does not eliminate the papilloma, after a while it may grow back. Removal on sensitive areas (genitals) can be painful.

What is the best way to remove papillomas on face and body?

Removal of papillomas on the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, their removal is a very frequently performed procedure. The choice of method depends on the size of the building block and its structure.

Removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen is common in many clinics and beauty salons. Thereafter, in most cases, there is no scarring on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. Expert dosing precisely the force of the laser. This helps to "evaporate" the papilloma cells, but does not affect healthy tissue. This is considered the safest procedure, as the laser destroys the bacteria that cause inflammation.

Traditional electrocautery and scalpel removal are more painful, and wounds after such surgery take longer to heal.

If you prefer to be treated with natural remedies, then try getting rid of facial blemishes with the help of mugwort, celandine or money tree juice. To do this, moisten the papilloma several times a day with juice from the stem.

Removal of papillae on eyelids

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often red. The removal of papillomas on the eyelids requires special precision. Therefore, it is not advisable to go to beauty salons randomly. You are better off entrusting this task to a dermatologist.

Best results are obtained by liquid nitrogen or laser removal. These methods allow you to make the procedure bloodless and avoid infecting the wound with bacteria.

Removal of papillomas on the neck

The papillomas in this area are often damaged by clothing or jewelry, and become infected. To prevent infections, doctors recommend removing them.

The most common method is laser cauterization of bruises. The operation lasts no more than 1 minute for 1 growth. This method cannot completely protect against the reappearance of papillomas, but it still reduces the risk.

Capacitor coagulation is also used. A thin device, through which a high-frequency electric current flows, heats tissues and kills viruses. After such a procedure, the papilloma can be sent for study.

Radiosurgery is also very effective. A thin metal ring is applied to the skin around the papilloma. She generates radio waves. Under their action, skin cells "dry out" and growth disappears. According to the operating principle, the method is similar to laser removal.

Remove papilloma on the body

remove papilloma on body

It is necessary to remove papillomas on the body when there are a lot of papillomas, they grow and merge together, become infected and cause inconvenience. You can get rid of them with the help of a traditional operation. Large papillomas are cut with a scalpel. At the same time, an area of healthy skin is also taken to remove all cells affected by the virus. But this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have appeared.

A gentler and more modern method is the cold suction method. Liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and it disappears. The remaining peel should be treated 2 times a day with calendula tincture and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or using an electrocautery machine.
After the papilloma is removed, the patient can go home almost immediately. But the patient still needs to undergo a course of antiviral treatment and immune-boosting care.